Professor Denise Wood AM is Engaged Research Chair and Director of the Centre for Regional Advancement of Learning, Equity, Access and Participation at Central Queensland University (CQUniversity). Her qualifications include a PhD (Education), Master of Educational Technology, Master of Design, Graduate Certificate in Flexible Learning, Graduate Diploma in the Instructional Uses of Computers, Graduate Diploma in Social Sciences, and a Bachelor of Arts (Social Work). She is a Professional Member of the Australian Association of Social Workers, the Australian College of Educators (MACE) and senior member of the Australian Computer Society (MACS).
Her research focuses on strategies for improving educational access, participation and success, and social, health and well-being outcomes, particularly for under-represented populations including those in regional and remote locations, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and people with disabilities. She has led more than $8 million in funded research, including several projects funded by the Commonwealth Department of Social Services, the Commonwealth Department of Education and Training, Office for Learning and Teaching and National Priority Pool projects.
Denise has authored/co-authored more than 120 peer-reviewed publications including book chapters and high impact journal publications as well as several government reports, and she is a co-editor of two education related edited books published by Routledge and Springer. She is also a member of the Higher Education Research and Development Journal College of Reviewers and former Associate Editor, as well as a peer reviewer of several high ranked journals.
She is a member of the Commonwealth Equity Research and Innovation Panel, the National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education Advisory Committee, the Queensland Statewide NDIS Workability Advisory Group and the FASD CQ Alliance. She is also Deputy Chair of the Australasian Congress of Undergraduate Research and a Member of the World Conference on Undergraduate Research Organising Committee. She is an assessor for the Australian Awards for University Teaching, and a reviewer for the Australian Research Council, the Channel 7 Children’s Research Foundation, the South African National Research Foundation and the United States National Science Foundation.
Denise received a Member of the Order of Australia Award (AM) in 2017 for significant service to education as an academic, researcher and practitioner in the field of participation, inclusion and access. She has also been awarded an Australian Learning and Teaching Council Citation for Outstanding Contributions to Student Learning; a SA Great Award for services to a specialist field (disability); a Telstra-TJA award for Telecommunications and Disability, and a UniSA Education, Arts and Social Sciences Distinguished Academic Achievement Award.
My research and
teaching interests align closely with the Australian national research priorities
to promote and maintain good health, and the related goal to strengthen
Australia’s social and economic fabric, while also addressing the National
Disability Reform Agenda’s focus on activities that have practical benefits in
support of a more inclusive Australia.
My research involves cross-disciplinary
and trans-disciplinary collaborations with national and international academic
researchers, and partner investigators from the not-for-profit sector, advocacy
bodies and the information and communications technology (ICT) industry across
diverse, but related fields including education, disability studies, social
work and social policy, health sciences, communication and the media, and
assistive technologies. The innovative use of ICTs underpins my research across
these disciplinary areas and I have a particular interest in the application of
ICTs to increase the educational and social participation of children and young
people, especially those from special equity groups.
IIn mid-2012 I was appointed to an adjunct Professorial
position (Extraordinary Professor) in the Faculty of Education at the
University of the Western Cape, South Africa. My commitment to the scholarship
of learning and teaching is also evident from my leadership of several national
funded learning and teaching projects, my publications record, and my role as a
former mentor for the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) Building
Innovation in Teaching and Learning (BuILT) program and the Australasian
Society for Computers in Learning ASCILITE community mentor program. I am also an
Associate Editor of the Higher Education, Research and Development Journal, and
a reviewer for several high ranked learning and teaching related journals
including Computers and Education, the British Journal of Educational
Technology, Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, and Research
in Learning Technology (formerly Alt-J).
findings from my funded research projects have been widely disseminated through
excess of 90 peer reviewed publications including 11 book chapters, 30
peer reviewed journal papers (three of which have won national awards), 45 peer
reviewed conference papers (one of which won best paper award in 2008), and
four national government reports. Of these publications, six are published in high ranking journals including two that
and ISI impact factors of 1.561/1.517 (field of education and
educational research) and are ranked 25 out of 206 in the field of
education and educational research. One of these publications was an A*
ranked journal in former ERA rankings and is ranked 23 in the field of
Sociology, and two were A ranked in the former ERA rankings
with Scopus and ISI impact factors of 1.561/1.517 (field of education and
educational research), and ranked 22 in the field of Cultural Studies). I am also co-editor of a forthcoming book to
be published in 2014 by Routledge, which is titled Activity theory, Authentic Learning, and Emerging Technologies: Towards
a Transformative Higher Education Pedagogy.My
publications have received more than 200 citations in the last five years
1227 times via Academia.edu, with one publication (A scaffolded approach to developing students' skills and confidence to
participate in self and peer assessment) having been accessed 730 times in
the last three years. Another of my papers focusing on accessibility solutions
using Web 2.0 and 3D virtual worlds, has consistently ranked in the top 5-10% of full
paper downloads from the Australian Computer Society’s Telecommunications Journal of Australia
since first published in 2010; the most recent statistics available from the
editors of the journal (January 2013) reporting the paper to be in the top
4.5% of all downloads with 1,505 full manuscript downloads to date.
I have also presented at more
than 120 national and international
conferences, including four keynote presentations and I
have conducted more than 30 teaching and learning seminars and
workshops in Australia and internationally. My research has gained
significant national and international exposure and media coverage including more
than 120 interviews on local and international news (Channel 7 news and
SBS World News) and more than 40 radio
interviews (ABC National Radio, Radio Adelaide and Radio 5RPH). My
research has also been widely disseminated via press releases and blog postings.
These include news reports, articles (for example Education Review, Higher
Education Update, Telstra Links
magazine, the Metaverse Journal, and Australian Computer Society News), as
well as articles posted to blogs (including
blogs hosted by organisations such as the Australian Mobile Telecommunications
Association, Media Access Australia, Disability Information and Resource
Centre, Deafness Forum, and the Australian Communications Consumer Action
National and State Awards
2010: Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) Citation for Outstanding Contributions to Student Learning for sustained excellence in engaging undergraduate students through service learning and research activities that promote social and ethical action and enhance the student learning experience
University of South Australia Awards
Division of Education Arts and Social Sciences Distinguished Academic Award
Supported Teacher Award
Division of Education Arts and Social Sciences Community Engagement Award
and 2007 Quality Teaching Awards (UniSA)
UniSA Citation for Outstanding Contributions to Student Learning
Chancellor’s Award for Equity (UniSA)
Director Excellence Award (UniSA — Div EASS)
Chancellor's Award for Community Service (UniSA team member)
2004 Equity Award — Special Commendation
Supporting young people with disabilities through technology and enterprise development. Press release, 5th August 2013 describing the new $2.97 million DEEWR funded project funded through the NBN-Enabled Education and Skills Services Program: http://www.unisa.edu.au/Media-Centre/Releases/Supporting-young-people-with-disabilities---through-technology-and-enterprise-development/
UniSA News article July 2013 announcing the new OLT funded project focusing on the design of inclusive, technology-enhanced learning environments. http://w3.unisa.edu.au/unisanews/2013/July/story12.asp
Using ICTs to enhance education. Article by Kanina Foss, 17th October in University of the Witwatersrand News. http://www.wits.ac.za/newsroom/newsitems/201210/18087/news_item_18087.html
Radio Adelaide interview with Bryanna Griffin discussing the role of social media in supporting teaching and learning, 22 May 2012. Media Rites 2012 Segment.
Telstra prize again highlights the benefits of modern communications for people with disability. Press Release by Telstra on May 23, 2012 listing award winners for the 2012 Telstra-TJA Christopher Newell Award: http://bmediaradioadelaide.com/mediarites-2012/program-11-may-22-2012/http://www.telstra.com.au/abouttelstra/media-centre/announcements/telstra-prize-highlights-modern-communications-benefits.xml
First University Backed Web Accessibility Course for Professionals Launched. Media Access Australia press release, 6th March 2012: http://mediaaccess.org.au/latest_news/general/first-university-backed-web-accessibility-course-for-professionals-launched
Australian Learning and Teaching Council grant success. Article in UniSA News, August 2011. http://w3.unisa.edu.au/unisanews/2011/december/story14.asp
Taking virtual learning to Africa. Article in UniSA News, August 2011. http://www.unisa.edu.au/unisanews/2011/August/story10.asp
Channel 7’s Today Tonight segment, interview with journalist Lucy Polkinghorne about the potentially addictive properties of Massively Multiuser Online Strategy games such as Evony. Broadcast on Channel 7, 2nd August, 2011.
Denise Wood speaking about research in South Africa with Peter Greco on the Leisure Links segment, Saturday 30th July, 2011. http://denisewood.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/rph-29072011.mp3
3D learning in South Africa. Published by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council on the 12th, July, 2011. http://www.altc.edu.au/July2011-south-africa
Gauteng, Limpopo teach in 3D. Article published 18th July, 2011 in IT Web Open Source by journalist Farzana Rasool describing our research in Gauteng and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa: http://www.itweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=45444:gauteng-limpopo-teach-in-3d&catid=203
SANZAF, Siyafunda CTC and Esquire Technologies major role players in bringing 3d virtual learning to Gauteng. Article published by Yusuf in LENZINFO: Lenasia’s Very Own Website on 7th July, 2011. http://www.lenzinfo.co.za/?p=2471
Esquire partners in 3D virtual learning trial. Article about our 3D virtual learning project published via Esquire Technologies South African website, 25th July, 2011. http://companies.mybroadband.co.za/esquire/2011/07/25/esquire-partners-in-3d-virtual-learning-trial/
Leading-edge 3D virtual learning technologies. Press release posted to The Big Picture, The Fine Print blog of film maker Alison Richards, 13th July 2011. http://alisonrichards.wordpress.com/2011/07/13/leading-edge-3d-virtual-learning-technologies/
Interview with Marina Simons and Lachlan Pryor published in the Adelaide Advertiser article Study in another world, Education Now section, 28th June, 2011, p. 61.
Interview with Annie Hastwell, ABC National, Life Matters, 14th June, 2011, discussing the use of 3D virtual learning environments in teaching and learning. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/lifematters/stories/2011/3240891.htm
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 26th March 2011, discussing the CSUN conference on technologies and people with disabilities.
Training & Courses E-learning in style published in Adelaide Advertiser article in employment supplement, 26th February, 2011, p.E35.
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 26th February 2011, discussing our research in South Africa and the 2011 E-learning and Distance Education Conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 25th September 2010, discussing the outcomes of first stage of the collaborative project with Novita Children’s Services and Flinders University to investigate the potential of social networking to increase the social participation of children with disabilities.
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 31st July 2010, discussing the Draft National Disability Strategy report released by the caretaker Gillard Government, and the Social Inclusion Board’s call for the views of all South Australians to inform the development of its Blueprint for disability reform.
Interview with Dr Denise Wood about Web 2.0 and 3D Virtual Worlds, Australian Communications Consumer Action Network newsletter, 19th July, 2010: http://www.accan.org.au/blog.php?category=general
Virtual Worlds Award, University of South Australia Magazine, Winter 2010, p. 21: http://www.unisa.edu.au/news/unisamagazine/issues/2010Winter.pdf
TIO honours former Council member, TIO Talks: Telecommunications Ombudsman, No. 2, 2010, p. 7: http://www.tio.com.au/publications/TIO_talk_issues/47/TIOTalks47.pdf
Citations celebrate student learning at UniSA, Campus Daily, 6th July 2010: http://www.campusdaily.com.au/read_university_news.php?id=2610 ,
UniSA Media Release, Citations celebrate student learning at UniSA, 6th July 2010: http://www.unisa.edu.au/news/2010/060710A.asp
ALTC Media Release, ALTC announces 2010 Citation awards (6th July, 2010): http://www.altc.edu.au/July2010-2010-Citation-award-winners-announced
Innovative community engagement program wins Premier’s Award, Minister for Volunteers Annual Report 2009-2010, pp. 21-22): http://www.ofv.sa.gov.au/pdfs/MinistersReport_Annual_Report_2010.pdf
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 22nd May 2010, about the Telstra-TJA Christopher Newell Award.
Researcher receives award for using social media to support the education of people with disabilities, Media Access Australia article, 20th May, 2010.
Telstra Media Release, Telstra prize highlights the benefits of modern communications for people with disability, 21st May, 2010:
Opening virtual doors, UniSA News, June 2010.
VHH Contribution and Collaboration is recognized in the Telstra-TJC Christopher Newell Prize, Virtual Helping Hands, 23rd May, 2010: http://www.virtualhelpinghands.org/news.htm
University of South Australia Immersive Education Initiative: IED Summit (24th June 2010): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOlfYqIxGMI&feature=player_embedded#!
3D virtual learning platforms, World News Network, 28th June, 2010: http://article.wn.com/view/2010/06/28/3D_virtuallearning_platforms/
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 24th April 2010, discussion about the Comms2010 Summit and announcements by Senator the Hon. Stephen Conroy, Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy regarding NBN, proposed ACMA consumer protection measures, and plans to improve access to the National Relay Service
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 27th February 2010, Technology round up of accessibility solutions and events, http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/3dvle/media/rph_ll2_2702_2010.mp3
Channel 7 Evening News interview about the benefits of social networking for people with disabilities, 3rd February, 2010.
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 28th November 2009, discussing outcomes from the Round Table on Government 2.0 held at Parliament House on the 26th November.
Presentation at the Gov 2.0 Roundtable at Parliament House, 26th November, 2009. Recorded by Senator Kate Lundy’s office: http://dotsub.com/view/0960e313-be9d-4497-ae5a-b24a7d3401a3
Article by Lowell Cremorne, Interview – Denise Wood, University of South Australia, The Metaverse Journal, November 2, 2009, http://www.metaversejournal.com/2009/11/02/interview-denise-wood-university-of-south-australia/
Article in Technology Guide, Real Experience in an Unreal World, Education Review, October 2009, p. v1. http://www.apnedmedia.com.au/email/lores-ict-sept09.pdf
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 26th September 2009, discussing the role of the Australian Consumer Action Network and community consultation process, http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/3dvle/media/rph_ll2_290809.mp3
UniSA News article September 2009, Improving communities, enhancing student learning, http://www.unisa.edu.au/unisanews/2009/September/feature.asp
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 29th August 2009, discussing student engagement and experiential learning (Community Webs project and Health Support Coalition student projects), http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/3dvle/media/rph_ll2_250709.mp3
The Independent Weekly article in ‘Spectrum’ section about our research into accessibility solutions in 3D virtual environments for people with disabilities viewable online at http://www.indaily.com.au/?iid=28172 (page 18 of 42).
Interview with Peter Greco, 5RPH Radio 25th July 2009, report on the IEEE-IBM Accessing the Future Conference, Boston.
Accessible learning in a virtual world, Technology Update, Higher Education Update, Edna.au, 25th June, 2009: http://www.edna.edu.au/edna/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/he/090625.html
Interview with Peter Greco, RPH radio, 27th June 2009, report on the Helen Keller event in Second Life, http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/3dvle/media/rph_ll1_270609.mp3
Second Life for Disabled. Interview by Manny Tsigas on SBS World News special on 30th May 2009.
Interview with Andrew Male, ABC North and West SA Late Afternoon show, 28th May 2009 discussing launch of the National Rail Museum, Tea and Sugar Train interactive exhibit – a collaborative project involving UniSA media arts students and Carnegie Mellon University.
Interview with Channel 31, 2nd July 2009, discussing collaboration with Carnegie Mellon University and the launch of the Tea and Sugar Train exhibit at the National Rail Museum.
National Rail Museum Annual Report 2008-2009, Launch of the Teach and Sugar Train Exhibit, pp. 9-10: http://www.natrailmuseum.org.au/.../NRM_ANNUAL_REPORT_200809.pdf
Article in UniSA news by Michele Nardelli about the ALTC funded 3D virtual learning project ‘Breathing Life into Next Gen Learning, viewable online at: http://www.unisa.edu.au/unisanews/2008/September/mainstory.asp
It's a Buyer's Market as Crunch Hits Virtual Realty, Sun Herald, December 28th, 2008, journalist Edmund Tardos.
Virtually Real. Outlook article published in City Messenger and Eastern Courier Outlook, May 2008, journalist Louise Russell.
UniSA Media Release, Over 55s cruise the superhighway at UniSA, 14th November, 2006: http://www.unisa.edu.au/news/2006/141106.asp
EASI Webinar interview (19th November 2002) with Norm Coombs (EASI), Denise Wood and Bruce Maguire (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) about Web accessibility policy in Australia.
Oh Yes They’re Just Great. Article about the 1994 SA Great Award awards including a section describing my SA Great Award for Services to a Special Field (Disability). Advertiser, 28th January 1994, front cover.
ACS Leading Edge Magazine, Comtec ’94 Awards. Front cover article about the Comtec ’94 awards with section describing my South Australian Information Technology Achiever of the Year Award, and photo of presentation by the Premier of South Australia, the Hon Dean Brown.
Article in Mazda Foundation Annual Report (1993-4) about OptCom grant ($54,085) to support multimedia training for young adults with disabilities, pp3-4: http://www.mazdafoundation.org.au/pdf/reportcomm9394.pdf
Web links and social media profile
University of South Australia Home Page: http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/staff/Homepage.asp?Name=denise.wood
Virtual Imaginings Wordpress Blog: http://denisewood.wordpress.com/
Academia.au Profile: http://unisa.academia.edu/DeniseWood/
LinkedIn Profile: http://au.linkedin.com/in/denisewood
Twitter Home Page: https://twitter.com/denlee
Facebook Profile Page: http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=709371922
ALTC funded Creativity Project Website: http://www.creativity-project.net/ingentool.php
ALTC funded 3D Virtual Learning Platform Project Website: http://communitywebs.org/3DVLE/
Accessible 3D Virtual Learning Environment (YouTube): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxohIjxheS8
ALTC funded Peer Review Project Website: http://www.communitywebs.org/peer_review/
Let-us-Learn Project Site (Africa): http://www.let-us-learn.org
Office for Learning and Teaching funded Inclusive Design of Technology Enhanced Learning Project Website: http://gild-online.org/
Digital Enterprise: Pathways to Education and Employment Project site: http://digital-enterprise-pathways.net/
Digital Enterprise (YouTube): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjocVccZc9k
Presentation on Inclusive Design of Technology Enhanced Learning at University of Western Cape on 10th February 2013: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-QRooV29pyw
Workshop on 3D virtual learning conducted at University of Western Cape in February 2012: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lw_36k9A-Nk&feature=youtu.be
conducted on flexible learning at the University of the Western Cape on 25th
June, 2012: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d78yW697rb8
Telstra funded research project focusing on mobile technologies as augmentative and alternative communication devices: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmiNtr_i-80
My focus in learning and teaching is consistent with the Australian Government’s vision for higher education in Australia and responds to the recommendations arising from the Bradley Review of Australian Higher Education, which acknowledges the central role of higher education in contributing to Australia’s social and economic progress. My approach as an academic leader guiding teaching and learning within the School of Communication, International Studies and Languages at UniSA has been to develop and implement strategies for improving the quality, relevance and reach of our teaching as well as enhancing the School’s capacity to accommodate an increasingly diverse student population, including those from special equity groups.
My own teaching focuses on developing and implementing strategies for engaging students, improving learning outcomes and facilitating student commitment to social and ethical action. I have a focus on embedding research and enquiry-based service learning activities within the curriculum and engaging undergraduate students with community sector organisations through service learning opportunities. I have led several nationally funded learning and teaching projects focusing on technology enhanced learning and supporting students from diverse backgrounds. My leadership of these grants has resulted in the design and development of flexible learning curricula using state-of-the-art educational technologies to facilitate authentic learning, reflective and reflexive practice, formative feedback and assessment and designed to promote student engagement with social and ethical issues through community-based service learning opportunities. I contribute the knowledge gained from the successful application of these teaching and learning methodologies to the wider higher education sector through scholarly research and publications.
I am experienced in the design and delivery of undergraduate, graduate and industry programs gained initially through my experience as a Program Director and as previous Associate Head of School responsible for teaching and learning. After my initial appointment as Program Director in the School of Communication, International Studies and Languages at UniSA, I assumed responsibility for the design and development of two new programs including the Bachelor of Media Arts andfrom 2012 until the time of my appointment as Professor of Learning, Equity, Access and Participation, as Associate Head of School, UniSA. During my time in that position I led the School through a period of major change resulting in the development of five exciting new industry focused undergraduate programs to be offered for the first time in 2015. As Program Director, I developed the School's most successful Media Arts program in 2005 and developed several new courses within the Media Arts program informed by student and peer feedback. I also designed and developed an industry focused Professional Certificate in Web Accessibility, which continues to attract high demand from government departments both nationally and internationally. As an academic with formal qualifications in education and educational technology, I have a strong academic foundation on which I have based the development and revision of courses. I am/have been the project leader of four nationally funded learning and teaching funded projects, and a team member of two other projects and I draw on the deliverables from these projects to benefit the design of my own courses.
Prior to my appointment at CQUni, I was responsible for three undergraduate courses including a first year course which is offered both onshore and transnationally. This course (Introduction to Digital Media), is a required foundation course for several computer science and arts degrees, and is also a popular general studies course undertaken by School of Education students planning to focus on teaching media studies. The course introduces students to digital media through digital storytelling and practice based research. I also taught two third year courses - Electronic Publishing on the Internet (EPI) and Accessible Interactive Media (AIM). Students enrolled in these courses undertake community projects through the ‘Sustainable Online Community Engagement’ (SOCE) program. This project receives recurrent research funding from the South Australian Government, Office for Volunteers and received the Premier’s Public Sector Award for Building Communities in 2009 in recognition of the professional skills that students gain from the learning experience as well as the benefits to the community groups. More specifically, my third year students enrolled in Accessible Interactive Media (AIM) undertook service learning with community organisations in the redesign of inaccessible Websites to ensure the sites meet W3C accessibility guidelines. The students gained invaluable experience in working with people who have disabilities, while also developing professional skills that ‘give them an edge’ when seeking employment.
Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia
Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary
Australian Computer Society (ACS)
Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW)
Scholarship of learning and teaching
Diversity and disability studies
Technology enhanced learning
3D simulated virtual worlds
CI and consultant for the OLT funded project, A Creativity Skills MOOC for Australian Coursework Masters Students led by Associate Professor Kym Fraser, Victoria University.
Independent evaluation of The National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education (NCSEHE) social networking and online repository site equity101, in line with requirements set by the project’s funding body: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). October 2011.
Research consultancy to Down Syndrome Victoria to assist in the design of their evaluation protocol for a project titled Measuring the Ordinary Magic of Resilience – Family Peer Support Evaluation Project. Review conducted April 2012.
Office of the Guardian (2012): The design and development of an interactive training DVD for Office of the Guardian. Total external funding $5,166.
Office of the Guardian (2010): The design and development of an interactive training DVD for Office of the Guardian based on content from a research study investigating the experiences of children in care. Total external funding $5,278.
SHine SA (2011): The design and development of an interactive virtual tour DVD resource focusing on desire discrepancy. Total external funding $8,733.
SHine SA (2010): The design and development of an interactive virtual tour DVD resource for young people that will be used to increase knowledge of SHine SA services and how to access them. Total external funding $7,686.
I am currently accredited for supervision in the following:
At the level of Principal Supervisor
Specialist Studies in Education - Special Education and Disability
Inclusive design, social inclusion, disability studies, transformative pedagogy, accessibility, disability rights, bio-psycho-social theory, cultural historical activity theory, social constructivism